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The evidence for Persian presence in Anatolia shows that East Greeks must have known Persians well; indeed, almost all of the known Greeks who spoke Persian come from this region (Miller, pp. Excavated ceramics verify that trade between the Greek world and Persian-held Asia Minor (and the Levant) continued throughout the period, showing no hint of a negative impact from military or other tensions.

This evidence comes from the satrapal centers Daskyleion (Tuna-Nörling, 1998, pp. B881; East Greek animal-head cups appear to be close imitations rather than adaptations). The importance of the hypostyle hall in Achaemenid Persian architecture, and its comparatively rare appearance in Greek architecture, makes any hypostyle hall in Greece suspected of Persian influence.

Intensified excavation in Turkey and restudy of finds from older excavations now affirm a significant Persian presence in Anatolia (Sekunda, 1985, 1988, and 1991).

Much is the indirect evidence of instances of local acculturation (for details see below).

Diplomatic gifts frequently included luxury toreutic and fine textiles; and, once, peacocks (Miller, pp. Diplomacy also involved dedications, like the robe dedicated by Pharnabazos of Daskyleion to Athena (Harris, p. At the other end of the social scale (as high-ranking Persians are rarely attested in Greece), immigrants, especially to Athens in the time of its own mid-5th-century imperial peak, must have served as a valuable means of communication. The apparent novelties of social practises depicted in sculpture and painting may well be Anatolian, in which case the Persian addition is in details of clothing, equipment, vessels, and sometimes composition. The Lydian kingdom based at Sardis was the dominant monarchy in the region for at least a century before the Persian conquest and Sardis remained an imperial center, even as it was the “Persian” city best known to the Greeks. E., the vessels (notably lobed and fluted shallow bowls, incense burners, and strainer) emulate the shapes and decorative devices of the Achaemenid centers or, in the case of the lidded jug, modify a traditional Lydian form in accordance with Achaemenid taste (Özgen and Öztürk, p. One rock-cut tomb at Sardis (Tomb 813) has a hybrid form, featuring both Lydian and Achaemenid elements (Dusinberre, 1997, pp. Remains of carts found at tombs reveal interaction between Persians and Anatolians in funerary arrangements (Kökten-Ersoy). Daskyleion, whose excavation has recently been resumed, promises to be crucially important to the understanding of local receptivity to Persian culture, as the extent of post-Achaemenid construction is comparatively limited. Margaret Cool Root, “Lifting the Veil: Artistic Transmission Beyond the Boundaries of Historical Periodisation,” in Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Amélie Kuhrt, and Margaret Cool Root, eds., , Internationale Archäologie 20, Rahden, 1998. CULTURAL RELATIONS WITH GREECE (EXTRA-IMPERIAL) The study of mainland Greek cultural relations with Persia in the classical period is still in its infancy so that it is at present not really possible to discuss it from a chronological perspective or even in terms of regional variation except in the grossest fashion. None of these can be characterised as export products as many examples have a Greek provenance. It probably was deliberately created to evoke a Persian atmosphere, for the Athenians’ own imperial propagandistic purposes (Miller, 1997, pp. The double animal-protome capital, another distinctive feature in Achaemenid architecture, was also occasionally emulated. Much later, the bull protomes of a late 4th-century shed for a ship dedicated to Apollo on Delos, the “Monument des taureaux,” are also ascribed to an Achaemenid model (Roux, pp. The Attic-Ionic column base in the Stoa of the Athenians at Delphi (470-450 B. E.), which perhaps commemorated a victory against the Persians, has been thought to allude to the Persian bell base (Amandry, pp. 140-41); but the victory may not have been against Persians (Walsh); and the ultimate genealogy of the form may be Greek (Boardman, pp. Some of the most prominent victory monuments from the Persian Wars perhaps include quotations of Near Eastern iconography to project their message: the serpent column with its golden tripod at Delphi, constructed to celebrate the victory at Plataia, is found to have Elamite antecedents (Stähler, 1992, pp. Herodotus (9.80.2) comments on the wealth of textiles captured at Plataia, and clothing frequently appears among royal gifts in the Near East.

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Seidl): the Achaemenid-style procession relief sculptures at Medancıkkale, Cilicia (Davesne and Laroche-Traunecker), and the cloth-bearing processants painted in a tomb at Harta in Lydia (Özgen and Öztürk, p. For three generations in the Archaic period and again in the 4th century B. E., the Greek cities of Western Anatolia were part of the Persian Empire, although they never lost contact with the states of mainland Greece (Debord). Literary evidence generally presents a picture of hostility between the Persian and Greek worlds, with Macedonia, Thrace, and west Anatolia comprising much of the battle ground; the focus in the historical record on the military conflicts and diplomatic relations implies little cultural exchange. INTRODUCTION The cultural impact of contact with Greece on Persia is discussed below (sec. Here the evidence for receptivity to Persian culture in Greece, the North Aegean, and West Anatolia is addressed, including receptivity on the part of the non-Greek peoples of these regions.The study of such receptivity is beset by a variety of problems relating to the fact that it is perforce based on archeological evidence for regions that are as yet imperfectly known.

The near-complete dependency on the material record may re-sult in an imbalanced picture.We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing services each and every time you place an order.

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